Tuesday, November 7, 2017

From a dualism to a theory of time

This argument is valid:

  1. Some human mental events are fundamental.

  2. No human mental event happens in an instant.

  3. If presentism is true, every fundamental event happens in an instant.

  4. So, presentism is not true.

Premise (1) is widely accepted by dualists. Premise (2) is very, very plausible. That leaves (3). Here is the thought. Given presentism, that a non-instantaneous event is happening is a conjunctive fact with one conjunct about what is happening now and another conjunct about what happened or will happen. Conjunctive facts are grounded in their conjuncts and hence not fundamental, and for the same reason the event would not be fundamental.

But lest four-dimensionalist dualists cheer, we can continue adding to the argument:

  1. If temporal-parts four-dimensionalism is true, every fundamental event happens in an instant.

  2. So, temporal-parts four-dimensionalism is not true.

For on temporal-parts four-dimensionalism, any temporally extended event will be grounded in its proper temporal parts.

The growing block dualist may be feeling pretty smug. But suppose that we currently have a temporally extended event E that started at t−2 and ends at the present moment t0. At an intermediate time t−1, only a proper part of E existed. A part is either partly grounded in the whole or the whole in the parts. Since the whole doesn’t exist at t−1, the part cannot be grounded in it. So the whole must be partly grounded in the part. But an event that is partly grounded in its part is not fundamental. Hence:

  1. If growing block is true, every fundamental event happens in an instant.

  2. So, growing block is not true.

There is one theory of time left. It is what one might call Aristotelian four-dimensionalism. Aristotelians think that wholes are prior to their parts. An Aristotelian four-dimensionalist thinks that temporal wholes are prior to their temporal parts, so that there are temporally extended fundamental events. We can then complete the argument:

  1. Either presentism, temporal-parts four-dimensionalism, growing block or Aristotelian four-dimensionalism is true.

  2. So, Aristotelian four-dimensionalism is true.

1 comment:

Christopher Michael said...
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