## Thursday, February 20, 2014

A haecceity of x is a property that, necessarily, x and only x has. For instance, it might be the property of being identical with x. If a particularly strong converse to the essentiality of origins holds, a good choice for a haecceity would be a complete history of the coming-into-existence of x. Haecceities are a useful tool. For instance, they let one replace de re modality with de dicto. For another, they help explain what God deliberates about when he deliberates which individuals to create.

There is a different tool that can do some of the same work: a particularizer. We can think of an x-particularizer as equivalent to the second order property of being instantiated by x. Thus, if A is an x-particularizer, then necessarily a property Q has A if and only if x has Q. I will occasionally read "Q has A" as "A particularizes Q". The main trick to using particularizers is to note that, necessarily, x exists if and only if x instantiates some property. Thus, if A is an x-particularizer, then, necessarily, x exists if and only if some property has A.

Suppose that any two distinct things differ in some property and that particularizers exist necessarily.

Then we can use particularizers for de re modals. Suppose A is an x-particularizer. Then, Q is an essential property of x if and only if necessarily: if any property has A, then Q has A. If we have an abundant account of properties, we can then account for more complex modals. And we can likewise account for God's creative deliberation about individuals: God deliberates about which particularizers should be instantiated.

A particularly neat thing about particularizers is that with some generalization they allow us to reduce quantification over particulars to quantification over properties. We need the primitive predicate P where P(A) if and only if A is a particularizer. If A is a property, I will use A(y) to abbreviate: y has A. Use E(A) to abbreviate ∃B(A(B)). If A is a particularizer of x, then E(A) holds if and only if x exists. Use A~B to abbreviate ∀C(A(C) iff B(C)). If A and B are particularizers, then A~B means that they are co-particularizers—i.e., there is an x such that they are both x-particularizers. Suppose now we want to say that there are exactly two dogs. Let D be the property of being a dog. We say:

• AB(P(A)&P(B)&A(D)&B(D)&~(A~B)&∀C((P(C)&C(D))→(A~C or B~C)).
I.e., there are particularizers that (a) particularize doghood, (b) are not co-particularizers, and (c) any particularizer that particularizes doghood is a co-particularizer of one of them.

If we want to deal with relations, and not just unary properties, then we need to generalize the notion of particularizers. One way to do this would to be suppose a primitive "multiplication" operation that forms an n-ary particularizer A1A2...An out of a sequence A1,A2,...,An, where an n-ary relation B has A1A2...An if and only if x1,x2,...,xn stand in B, where Ai is an xi-particularizer.

Instead of names of particulars, we will then work with names of their particularizers. Note that if in a Fregean way we think of quantifiers as corresponding to second-order properties, then particularizers will correspond to quantifiers (and remember the Montague way of thinking of names as quantifiers—this all fits neatly together).

Abundant Platonists who think that for every predicate there is a corresponding property should not balk at the existence of particularizers. We can define a particularizer either in terms of an entity x, as the property of being instantiated by x, or in terms of a haecceity H, as the property of having an instantiator in common with H. Likewise, we can define a haecceity in terms of a particularizer. If A is a particularizer, then the property of having all the properties that are particularized by A will make a fine haecceity. Or we can take particularizers to be primitive, whether we have abundant or sparse Platonism.

The above shows that we could do without first-order quantification and without talking of particulars. Now I think that nobody should simplify their ontology by getting rid of objects. Yet the above shows that we can do so. How to resist this simplifying reduction? I think the best way is to say that it does not sit well with the fundamentality of claims such as "I exist" and "I am conscious." For on the above reduction, these claims end up being reducible to E(A) and A(consciousness), where A is a me-particularizer. But only someone with an ontology on which "I exist" or "I am conscious" can resist the reduction in this way.